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These pharmacy cheap no prescription are hard to track due to their transient nature. Gernburd and Jadad studied health peescription offers and found that about half of online sellers of health products deactivated their spam links within a week of message delivery and three-quarters deactivated them after one month [ 24 ].

Given the global nature of the Internet predcription the challenge of regulating activities that cross national borders, federal efforts may be insufficient to protect US residents who purchase drugs online. Consumer education is cheap medications to play an important role.

This study was designed to gain understanding of how individuals evaluate the websites of two Internet pharmacies that were specifically designed to show many of the unsafe signs and no signs of trustworthiness, pharmacy cheap no prescription specified by the FDA consumer education materials. A health version of RRSA, an online interactive application, was designed to help information seekers to become effective, independent users of health information from digital electronic sources [ 28 ].

The assessment was used to obtain objective measures of competencies related to finding and evaluating health information. The evaluation module of the assessment included several questions about online pharmacies. Specifically, the assessment takers were asked to review two pharmacy websites, designed specifically for the purposes of the assessment. The features of these websites were common to websites of illegitimate pharmacy cheap no prescription pharmacies.

Responses by about individuals who phzrmacy the assessment between September and March were used to examine the degree to which college-educated information seekers are able to determine the trustworthiness of online pharmacies. The outcomes of this study can provide important insights for policy makers, authorities involved in regulating pharmacy operations, and consumer educators.

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Since Septembera cross-sectional online assessment titled Research Readiness Self-Assessment, Health Version RRSA-Health was administered to students, most of whom were enrolled in introductory health courses at a large Midwestern pharmacy cheap no prescription. The study was approved by an institutional review board IRB. The interactive online assessment contained questions about Internet pharmacies specifically designed for this study that showed multiple signs of low credibility.

The findings of this study can be generalized to a population of healthy young adults who are in their early 20s and enrolled in college programs. These individuals have the requisite computer skills related to using email, navigating websites, and conducting basic searchers in popular search engines. Individuals in this age group are among the most active users of the Internet, who are likely to do information searchers for themselves and others, for example, less computer literate family members.

The RRSA is an online assessment of eHealth literacy skills, specifically, those related to finding and evaluating health information from digital sources. It is a combination of an e-survey and an e-test with detailed performance feedback and suggested resources for skill improvement. To complete the RRSA, participants needed basic computer skills that are now acquired at the high school level.

The purpose, development, and administration of the RRSA were described in an earlier study by Ivanitskaya et al [ 28 ]. To assess pharmacy cheap no prescription students would evaluate these online pharmacies, six new items were developed, as well as seven additional items that asked students to explain low drug costs.

The addition of new questions lengthened the average completion time from 26 to 37 minutes. The link to an assessment was given via an email and posted on a course website. In addition, instructors who taught face-to-face courses advertised the RRSA in class.

A password was required to register for and then to participate in the assessment. The participants were informed that their participation was voluntary, that the assessment takes about 35 minutes to complete, and that their aggregate data may be used for research purposes.

Access to online respondent data was restricted through a password, an identification of pharmacy cheap no prescription unique IP address, and a minute time limit. The two pharmacies featured in the assessment had a large number of untrustworthy features see Table 1 and no signs of trustworthiness listed in the recent FDA update [ 18 ]. Students accessed the two click to see more by clicking on links provided in the RRSA questions.

The pharmacy websites were kept on a local server. Researchers pharmacy cheap no prescription recently studied characteristics of Internet pharmacies reported that 96 of drug sellers did not require a medical prescription [ 29 ]. The two websites were designed to show that the pharmacies were located outside of the US. Just like the original sellers, these pharmacies could be contacted by FAX, via email, or by submitting a comment typed into an online textbox.

No phone numbers were given to contact a live person.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Also of concern was the large amount of personal information requested from customers. Similar to the original websites on which the two pharmacies were modeled, the online text contained grammatical mistakes and typographical errors.

The two pharmacy websites used pharmacy cheap no prescription this study were designed to display below average surface credibility.

Therefore, it is unlikely that many study participants were impressed by the design or appearance of the websites. While searching for cheaper options, you found two online pharmacies.

Suppose you have a credit card and do not mind using it online. Other measured variables were demographics gender and age and education health major, yes or no, and the number of college credits earned to date.

Finally, there was a measure of health-related Internet behavior, that is, whether an individual had used information from general Internet searches for health decision making for themselves or to help others.

The participants were drawn from the population of undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in health-related courses offered by a Midwestern university. In Figure 1each of the respondents is designated as a dot, the placement of which is based on how this respondent rated Pharmacy A and Pharmacy B. There was a lot of variation in how the respondents rated pharmacies. The top left triangle has more dots than the bottom right triangle, which means that Pharmacy A was evaluated more favorably than Pharmacy B.

Indeed, the median rating for Pharmacy A was 4. In Figure 1red lines divide the scatter plot into nine quadrants based on bottom one-third, middle one-third, and top one-third of the ratings out of 10 of each pharmacy cheap no prescription.

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Percent of respondents in each cell is presented in Table 2. About half of the participants Table 5 shows reasons commonly chosen by the study participants to explain why Pharmacy B sells Beozine much cheaper than a local neighborhood pharmacy. Both pharmacies offered drugs at a lower price than a neighborhood pharmacy. To keep the assessment completion time under 40 minutes, participants were asked to explain a cheaper price at only one pharmacy, which displayed a greater number of features that put into question its legitimacy.

Other commonly chosen reasons were potentially lower quality of pharmacy cheap no prescription, supplementary revenues from advertising, customer pressures comparison shopping pharmacy cheap no prescription, higher sales volume, and supplementary revenues from selling information about customers. To better understand these responses, reasons pharmcy low drug cost were phamracy into three categories: 1 negative reasons that have the potential to cause harm to pharmacy customers, 2 neutral reasons, and 3 none of the above.

The number of neutral reasons checked also had a significant relationship with pharmacy ratings but in the opposite direction. Next, as a proxy measure of critical judgment, a pharmacy evaluation index was calculated as a mean of five factor scores: 1 ability to recognize negative reasons for low costs of Beozine at Pharmacy B; 2 bo to recommend Pharmacy A to friends and family; 3 willingness to recommend Pharmacy B to friends and family; 4 rating of Pharmacy A as a place to purchase Beozine; and 5 rating of Pharmacy B as a place to purchase Beozine.

Scaled 0 to 1 with a rating of one representing better judgment, factors 4 and 5 were prepared for inclusion in the pharmacy evaluation index. Independent-samples t tests were conducted to evaluate if individuals who use Internet information for making health decisions demonstrate better critical judgment skills, as indicated by the pharmacy evaluation index. The results were counter to expectations.

Predictors of the pharmacy evaluation index were examined using a hierarchical regression analysis. As can be seen in Table 6Model 1 took into account demographics, education, and self-reported health. All of these variables, except self-reported health, were significantly and positively related to the pharmacy evaluation index.

Gender was not a significant predictor of pharmacy judgment. Model 2 included the same predictors as Model 1 plus Internet-related beliefs and behaviors. After controlling for Model 1 predictors, whether an individual used information from general Internet searches for health decision making for self or to help others was a significant negative predictor, as well as a belief in the high quality of Internet health information.

The practical significance of this finding pharmacy cheap no prescription limited by a small effect size. The findings of this study indicate that university students are not making appropriate judgments about health information that is provided on the Internet.

The two Internet pharmacies used in this study had multiple untrustworthy features that were borrowed from five actual pharmacy websites that the authors considered to be potentially dangerous to consumers. Yet, almost one-half of the study population rated the Pharmacy A site favorably, while over one-third rated Pharmacy B in a favorable manner. It is interesting to pharmacy cheap no prescription that some of the participants pharmacy cheap no prescription gave these rogue pharmacies positive evaluations would not recommend them to family and friends.

Even so, about one quarter of respondents would recommend Pharmacy A to friends and family. When asked about why Beozine was cheaper at an Internet pharmacy versus the local pharmacy, the respondents checked several explanations. Perhaps these respondents noticed that Pharmacies A and B were located outside of the US and took this as an indicator, perhaps in conjunction with other untrustworthy features, that these pharmacies might not be compliant with the US laws.

An alternative explanation would be that the respondents did not believe that Internet pharmacies could be regulated as well as storefront pharmacies. Future research should continue to monitor the level of consumer awareness of pharmacy standards and accreditation. Do consumers know that all US Internet pharmacies must comply with the same regulations and face the same penalties for non-compliance as storefront pharmacies or clinics [ 10 ]?

In addition to these information requests, a large number of other features communicated potential danger, such as misleading statements, suspicious https://canadian21health.com/9-viagra-pharmacy-100mg-saw.php, unsupported claims, requests for personal information, typographical errors, and no way to contact a live person by phone.

But these plentiful signs of danger, absence of credibility markers, and very low drug prices did not arouse consumer suspicion in at least one-third of young people who participated in this study. Individuals who linked low drug costs to signs of danger few regulations, low quality of drugs and selling customer information had more negative evaluations of the Internet pharmacies than those who cited neutral reasons.

The actual rogue pharmacy websites we accessed offered their customers multiple neutral reasons, saying that their low prices were a result of high sales volumes, low operation costs, and consumer pressure due to comparison shopping. As warned by Palumbo [ 13 ], increased sales volumes may not result in lowered drug costs but may result in more counterfeit drugs in the future. We also examined if those who used Internet information to make health decisions had better judgment skills.

It was not the case. In fact, individuals who used general search engines had worse evaluation skills than students who reported more traditional methods for making health decisions. Additionally, it was found that those helping others make informed health decisions using the Internet information had worse judgment than those who did not.

In other words, people with worse judgment controlling for all other variables are the ones most likely to use information to help others. Perhaps these individuals are more eager to use any information versus quality information.

Not very skilled in evaluating the Internet pharmacies, these individuals may then recommend pharmacy cheap no prescription drugs to others. This was an interesting finding that was not hypothesized a priori and had a small effect size. Therefore, it would be expected that older individuals with more college education should be able to make better judgments about the health information provided online.

Conflicts of Interest: Conflicts of Interest: None declared. J Med Internet Res. Published online Dec 6. Louis, Campus BoxS. Euclid Ave. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Corresponding author. This article has been cited by other articles pharmacy cheap no prescription PMC. Abstract Background Many prescription drugs are freely available for purchase on the Internet without a legitimate prescription from a physician. Objective This study focused on the motivations for using no-prescription online pharmacies Cyeap to purchase prescription drugs rather than using the traditional doctor-patient-pharmacy model.

Methods We selected tramadol as a representative drug to address our objective pharmacy cheap no prescription it is widely prescribed as an unscheduled opioid analgesic and can easily be purchased from NPOPs. Results Respondents in both groups were primarily white, female, and in their mid-forties nontraditional users to upper forties traditional users. Keywords: prescription drugs, health care quality, access, evaluation, health policy, substance-related disorders.

Methods Selection of Target Drug Since most online pharmacies offer dozens of drugs for purchase, we needed to narrow the focus to users of a single representative target drug. Recruitment It has been widely documented that recruiting and administering surveys over the Internet is an acceptable and beneficial research methodology [ 45 - 46 ]. Survey Instrument Since this study represents a preliminary approach into this area of research, no standardized instruments could address all points of inquiry.

Data Analysis A total nl tramadol users qualified for and completed this study. Results Demographics As shown in Table 1both traditional and nontraditional users were orescription white and female. Table 1 Demographics and health information for traditional and nontraditional users. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Tramadol Use Table 2 shows that nontraditional users were more likely to take the higher dose mg traditional users. Table 2 Tramadol use among traditional and nontraditional users.

Figure 2.

The purpose of the study was to examine health consumers' vulnerability to fraud by rogue Internet pharmacies. Since little is known about. According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the distribution of controlled substances or dangerous pharmaceuticals without a valid prescription is.

Physical Dependence Both groups had high rates of suddenly stopping their use of tramadol, but nontraditional users were significantly more likely to cease use abruptly traditional users: Figure 3. Discussion Our data indicate that those who eschew the typical doctor-patient relationship to obtain tramadol through NPOPs do so primarily for reasons related to cost and accessibility and, cjeap importantly, expose themselves to great health risks.

Limitations Inherent in this study are all of the limitations typical of epidemiological and survey research, most notably generalizability and veracity of information gathered.

Dangers of buying medicines online - NHS

Conclusion Our data suggest that online pharmacies may have a role in supplying prescribed medications because they are convenient and may charge less than traditional brick-and-mortar pharmacies. Acknowledgments This study was financed with institutional funds and was approved by the Institutional Review Board at Washington University in St.

References 1. Quality of global e-pharmacies: can we safeguard consumers? Eur Pharmacy cheap no prescription Clin Pharmacol. Controversies and legal issues of prescribing and dispensing medications using the Internet. Mayo Clin Proc. Henney JE. Montoya ID, Jano E. Online pharmacies: safety and regulatory considerations.

Int J Health Serv. Weiss AM. Buying prescription drugs on the internet: promises and pitfalls. Cleve Clin J Med. Jul, []. Apr, []. Source of drugs for prescription opioid analgesic abusers: a role for the Internet? Pain Med. Quality of online pharmacies and websites selling prescription drugs: a systematic review. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Click to see more. C The Here at Drugfree.

Marketing and pricing strategies of online pharmacies. Health Policy. Forman RF. Availability of opioids on the Internet. The Internet as a source of drugs of abuse. Curr Psychiatry Rep. Interim final rule with request for comments. Fed Regist. Prescription drugs purchased through the internet: who are the end users?

Drug Alcohol Depend. Prescription opioid abuse among enrollees into methadone maintenance treatment. Impact of Internet pharmacy regulation on opioid analgesic availability. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. Jun, []. Jones MJ. Internet-based prescription of sildenafil: a patient series.

May, []. Jul 22, []. Castronova JR. Operation cyber chase and other agency efforts to control internet drug trafficking. The "virtual" enforcement initiative is virtually useless. J Leg Med. Feb 16, []. Yahoo News Yahoo News. Jun 11, []. Silverman E. Washington Post. Oct 3, []. Jun 20, []. Jun 17, []. Comparison of simvastatin tablets from the US and international markets obtained via the Internet.

Ann Pharmacother. Quality assessment of internet pharmaceutical products using traditional and non-traditional analytical techniques. There are many pharmacy websites that operate legally and offer convenience, privacy, and safeguards for purchasing medicines. But the U. Food and Drug Administration warns that there are many rogue online pharmacies that claim to sell prescription medicines at deeply discounted prices, often without requiring a valid prescription.

These Internet-based pharmacies often sell unapproved or counterfeit pharmacy cheap no prescription outside the safeguards followed by licensed pharmacies.

Objective. This study focused on the motivations for using no-prescription online pharmacies (NPOPs) to purchase prescription drugs rather than using the. The FDA has issued draft guidance outlining ways in which some prescription drugs could be made available to consumers without a prescription.

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